Fortieth Anniversary of Vatican II Symposium (2002)
Anglican-Roman Catholic Relations Since Vatican II
By Sister Mary Cecily Boulding, OP
ONLY bigots or pessimists could dismiss the real and welcome change in relations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches, but even optimists might miss the fundamental character of this change. The past forty years have witnessed a profound theological revolution which can seem incredible even to those closely involved in it.
The first phase of the modern ecumenical movement, initiated by the 1910 Edinburgh Missionary Conference and greatly encouraged by the 1920 Lambeth Conference Appeal 'to all Christian people', met with courteous non-cooperation from Pope Benedict XV because of the then current Roman Catholic understanding of 'church'.
Despite some cautious and unofficial encouragement for the 1925 Malines Conversations between Lord Halifax and Cardinal Mercier, a positive diatribe in Pius XI's 1928 encyclical Mortalium Animos[i] described ecumenical enthusiasm as 'indifferentism', contemptuously referred to ecumenists as 'pan-christians', and accused the 1927 Faith and Order Conference of indiscriminately inviting 'infidels and apostate christians'.[ii] The only true road to unity was for all to admit their errors and return to Rome – an attitude shared by the English Catholic bishops of the time.[iii] In 1937 Yves Congar O.P. published a serious theological analysis of the ecumenical scene in his book Divided Christendom,[iv] but Pius XII's 1944 encyclical on The Mystical Body of Christ[v] earnestly repeated the same invitation to all to return to Rome. Change in this climate has not been achieved without difficulty, pain and heart-searching on all sides; the last forty years could be described as a progress from euphoria, through acute depression to an equilibrium characterized by hard grind, illustrating perhaps the recognized stages of growth to maturity – optimism, pessimism, realism.
There were early hints of change before the second Vatican Council, and in 1960 Geoffrey Fisher paid a visit to Pope John XXIII in Rome, but in a private capacity rather than as Archbishop of Canterbury. The story of the official development in relations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches is largely the story of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (commonly known by its acronym ARCIC) in which Bishop Christopher Butler played a key role. In 1966 Archbishop Michael Ramsey paid an official visit to Pope Paul VI (on which occasion the Pope exchanged with him his episcopal ring from the diocese of Milan) and they issued their Common Declaration[vi] 'to inaugurate a serious dialogue...which, founded on the Gospels and the ancient common tradition, may lead to the unity for which Christ prayed.' So a joint preparatory commission was established, of which Bishop Butler was a member from 1967-1969, and this produced the so-called Malta Report in 1967,[vii] recommending a dialogue agenda which should cover both theological and practical issues. For that purpose a 'Permanent Joint Commission' was set up—which promptly repudiated the description 'permanent' since its aim was eventually to render itself superfluous—and which became known as ARCIC. Bishop Butler remained a member of ARCIC until 1982, and it is not without significance that for part of that time—1968-1973—he was also a member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome.
Like Caesar's Gaul[viii] the story of ARCIC falls into three parts. The first commission, ARCIC I, presented its findings in 1981 and recommended that a new group should carry on the work, though ARCIC II, convened in 1983, did include a small number of the original members (including our eminent friend and colleague Ted Yarnold who died recently), and a further renewal of membership took place in 1991. ARCIC I produced Agreed Statements on The Eucharist and Ministry and Ordination with Elucidations, and two joint statements on Authority in the Church with Elucidations. These were collected and published as The Final Report[ix] to coincide with the Pope's visit to Britain in 1982.
The progress these represented was sufficiently encouraging to persuade the Pope and the Archbishop to issue a further joint declaration, from Canterbury, establishing ARCIC II (of which I was a member). The agenda set was: to assess the Churches' official responses to the Final Report; to tackle outstanding doctrinal differences; and to consider what practical steps will be necessary when, as a result of our communion in faith we are able to proceed to reunion.[x] Progress in the eighties was not as fast as it had been in the seventies; it proved possible seriously to tackle only the second item of this agenda. The chief outstanding doctrinal difference was seen to be the role of the Church—with its sacraments and authority structure—in relation to the nature and reality of salvation. ARCIC II produced Agreed Statements on Salvation and the Church[xi] and The Church as Communion.[xii] Our agenda had explicitly included 'the study of all that hinders our mutual recognition of ministries,[xiii] and in 1995 Cardinal Cassidy stated in a letter to the co-chairmen of ARCIC II that a declaration of real agreement in faith by both Churches 'in matters which admit of no divergence' concerning Eucharist and Ministry, would alter the context of Leo XIII's 1896 assessment of Anglican orders, and 'could lead to a new evaluation of the sufficiency of these rites'.[xiv]
A topic of both doctrinal and practical disagreement was obviously the ordination of women to the priesthood. The subject was a live and urgent issue in the Anglican Communion, and it was evident that the Roman Catholic position was not likely to change in the foreseeable future. No convergence was achieved on this question, but relations were sustained, and even strengthened, by the correspondence between Pope and Archbishop extending over the period 1982-1988, which was remarkable on both sides for its absolute frankness together with warm fraternal courtesy and real understanding for the other's position,[xv] especially after the 1988 Lambeth Conference.[xvi]
Assessment of the official responses to the Final Report was not possible until the nineties, since these only came from the Lambeth Conference of 1988[xvii] and the Committee for Christian Unity in Rome in 1991,[xviii] the former being more unambiguously encouraging than the latter. The request of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome for 'clarification' on some points concerning Eucharist and Ministry led the third ARCIC team (convened in 1992) to produce a supplementary statement, Clarifications,[xix] in 1994, indicating precisely how ARCIC language matched the theological terminology current in the Catholic Church – an exercise unwelcome to some Anglicans as apparently biasing the well-established dialogue in a Catholic direction.[xx] It did however result in the emphatic endorsement of these two Agreed Statements by the President of the Council for Christian Unity in Rome in 1994.[xxi] ARCIC II then turned its attention to the stance of the two Churches on moral and ethical issues, and produced an impressive Common Statement on their differing approaches and points of agreement in Life in Christ in 1994.[xxii]
In response to widespread concern in both Churches, ARCIC II also took up again the subject of authority, producing in 1998 a very remarkable document, The Gift of Authority.[xxiii] This not only took up questions left unresolved by the Final Report of ARCIC I, but carried the whole study very much further, in the light of developments about authority, especially primatial authority, in both churches. The extent of theoretical agreement reached by the members of ARCIC went beyond the wildest hopes—or fears—of many, both Catholics and Anglicans. The document is so irenic that, despite the undoubted cogency and veracity of its theological argumentation, it failed to command wide acceptance in Anglican circles – chiefly because the theory of primacy it elaborates is seen to be too far removed from the current mode of exercise of papal authority, a view with which Roman Catholics could not fail to agree. It was nevertheless an achievement to have brought the subject to public and formal discussion at such a significant forum sanctioned by the highest authorities in both churches.
ARCIC has continued to address other points of disagreement, and has, to date, made notable progress on a statement concerning the Blessed Virgin Mary.[xxiv] The third agenda item—practical steps necessary for reunion—has never been effectively tackled by ARCIC, but progress in this area has been made in other fora. In May 2000 the President of the Council for Christian Unity in Rome, Cardinal Cassidy, and Archbishop George Carey convoked a meeting of Anglican and Roman Catholic Bishops from around the world, which resulted in the statement of their belief that Anglicans and Roman Catholics share a degree of common faith such that greater cooperation and joint mission is possible than is currently practised, and their call for the establishment of a joint commission of bishops to take responsibility for bringing this about. This new International Anglican Roman Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission, inevitably now known by its acronym IARCCUM, held its first meeting in November 2001, partly in London in the presence of Archbishop Carey, and partly in Rome starting with an audience with the Pope. It has set itself three tasks: to draw up a declaration expressing our communion in faith, and the goal of unity and the commitment to common life and witness to the extent possible; to promote and monitor the reception of ARCIC documents; and to develop strategies for translating the degree of spiritual communion into visible, practical outcomes.[xxv] The hope is that, if bishops as pastors concerned with the practical life of the Church and not merely professional theologians take responsibility, progress in Anglican-Roman Catholic relations may be facilitated. The English Catholic bishop who serves on IARCCUM is professedly optimistic.
Many people feel that practical ecumenism current in parishes, schools, colleges, hospitals, prisons and other groups served by chaplaincies, has already outstripped the work and results of dialogues, national or international. This is part of a wider ecumenical story marked in this country by the replacement in 1990 of the British Council of Churches by new ecumenical instruments, such as Churches-Together-in-England, and not just part of the Anglican-Catholic relationship, but it is also addressed by local ARCs (nothing to do with Noah!) Very soon after Vatican II local Anglican-Roman Catholic Committees sprang up in those parts of the world where there is a substantial presence of both churches living side by side: in England, the USA, Canada, Australia, parts of Africa, and on continental Europe in Belgium and France. Such committees developed their own distinctive lives and characteristics: ARC USA usually fields quite heavyweight theologians who push forward serious study and research on relevant topics; Belgian ARC also generally concentrates on theological discussion, while French ARC is often more concerned with the situation and details of local neighbourly relationships, particularly in the field of possible shared worship.
English ARC (about which as a long-serving member I know most) is—as you might expect—an unmethodical jumble of all these aspects! It was established in 1968 with Bishop Butler as a founder member.[xxvi] Its make-up has always been a deliberate mix of men and women, lay and ordained, academics, pastors and those mythical figures 'the people in the pew' – a mix intended to cover various specialist areas like schools and education or inter-church families. One of its original aims was to promote the work of ARCIC, and those documents have been studied, publicised and commented on in printed works, but the relationship has never been a close one, though until very recently there has always been at least one member (and sometimes more) of ARCIC among the membership of English ARC.
A more immediate and successful aim has been to foster Anglican-Roman Catholic relations in this country, though it must be acknowledged here also that this is part of our wider ecumenical story. Nevertheless there are some specifically Anglican-Roman Catholic ventures, such as a number of shared schools, at both primary and secondary level.[xxvii] In rural areas like East Anglia several Catholic communities celebrate Sunday Mass in the local Anglican parish church as the nearest Catholic church is too distant, and there are rare examples of the reverse hospitality; similar shared facilities are of course common in college and hospital chapels. There are occasional examples of partially joint RCIA courses [xxviii] and many Catholic parishes have adopted the (modified) Alpha Course of basic christian instruction.
English ARC has provided a forum for joint response to other ecumenical initiatives, or to more general issues in our society as these affect christians. Biennial twenty-four-hour meetings have enabled us to observe, study and comment on practical projects such as shared schools, the Cambridge Theological Federation, Liverpool Hope University, Local Ecumenical Projects such as the parishes in Widnes and Swindon, and shared training courses for clergy like that at Queen's College, Birmingham. Fairly long stints of membership and thirty-four years of shared history have fostered strong ties which certainly develop into friendships, and create an atmosphere in which frank and outÂspoken discussion is possible; we hope that something of this atmosphere of trust and friendship does 'rub off' on others within our churches. Thus it has been possible to discuss such thorny questions as intercommunion, Apostolicae Curae and Anglican Orders, the ordination of women, Justification, or the exercise of authority in a pretty forthright manner. Recent meetings have discussed with full theological seriousness the Catholic Bishops' document One Bread, One Body[xxix] and the Church of England House of Bishops' reply, The Eucharist, Sacrament of Unity,[xxx] as well as the document from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome, Dominus Jesus,[xxxi] and the proposal for lay presidency of the Eucharist aired by the Anglican diocese of Sydney (Australia). Shared study has also been useful: major papers for instance from each side on the development of the diaconate have been mutually illuminating, and have illustrated dramatically how close are our theologies and our current—somewhat ambiguous—stance in this area. A joint consideration of the recent papal encyclical, Fides et Ratio, is on the agenda for the next meeting at the request of the Anglican members who wish us to study more fully the role of reason in the profession of faith.
English ARC is also a useful forum in which each church can interpret itself to the other – there is still extensive general ignorance about common positions, practices and procedures. It provides for explanation of what may seem to be unecumenical comments, actions or developments in one or other church, and for occasional fence-mending.[xxxii] Members have produced, often jointly, commentaries on ARCIC documents, Joint Schools, Apostolicae Curae and similar topics.[xxxiii] It is not a decision-making body and some may feel that—in typical English fashion—it bumbles along without achieving anything very much. However its still lively existence after thirty-four years suggests that it has become an organ of partial communion between the two churches in this country, embodying most of the dimensions of interrelationship already possible, and illustrating the hope of what might well be possible in the—not too distant—future.
I said that a theological revolution has taken place: the degree of doctrinal consensus between Anglicans and Roman Catholics should not be underestimated despite practical difficulties in giving this 'cash value'. The ARCIC statements on Eucharist and Ministry have been officially endorsed by the authorities of both churches as being 'substantial' in areas of faith 'which admit of no divergence'.[xxxiv] A significant measure of agreement on authority in the church was achieved in 1981, and subsequently mutually endorsed.[xxxv] Although the extensive 1999 development of this has not met with the same degree of support in either church, and certainly not yet with any official endorsement, the fact that it could be elaborated and published for discussion is evidence of the remarkable change in theological climate and attitude. As Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor commented, the opening up of the two churches to each other—integral to this document—is an encouraging sign of theological as well as ecumenical change.[xxxvi]
ARCIC II's statement on Salvation and the Church achieved an enormous leap forward in dismantling, at least for Anglicans and Roman Catholics, a major Reformation hurdle,[xxxvii] while The Church and Communion not only revealed almost total common ground in basic ecclesiology, but also contributed greatly to forming, and informing, the ecclesial perceptions of members of both churches. Though in themselves these documents are not widely familiar, they have become standard texts in seminaries and theology departments (where clergy of both churches frequently share part of their formation), and a professional survey indicated a 'trickle-down' effect by which their conclusions have permeated the thoughts and attitudes of ordinary church members.[xxxviii]
The relationship has become permanent, irreversible, and—it is hoped—ever-deepening. Even the most intractable obstacles have become situations to be handled within the relationship: the 1982 correspondence between Pope and Archbishop was not only courteous and frank, but also included elements of constructive discussion, and the Pope's letter to ARCIC's celebratory meeting at Malines in 1996 reasserted '...the profound spiritual bonds linking the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion...despite difficulties, some of recent origin...'[xxxix]
The theological character of this revolution was expounded at length by Pope John Paul II in his 1995 encyclical, Ut Unum Sint.[xl] The 1981 statment of ARCIC's Final Report, that 'those who have received the same word of God, and have been baptised in the same Spirit, cannot without disobedience acquiesce in a state of separation'[xli] is echoed in para. 10 of Ut Unum Sint: 'In this situation of lack of unity the Catholic faithful are seriously challenged by the Lord of the Church.' The Pope goes on to point out that anything that the Spirit brings about in others can serve for the building up of all, and instruct them in the mystery of Christ (UUS 33). Saving elements in other churches and ecclesial communities are not passive but a dynamic force for the re-establishment of unity (UUS 49). Statements of bilateral dialogues must become a common heritage, through a critical process involving the whole People of God, bearing in mind John XXIII's distinction between the deposit of faith and the formulaÂtion in which it is expressed (UUS 80-81). Reciprocal fraternal influence has been a significant achievement in the last thirty years and must be taken seriously into account (UUS 87). And finally, the most dramatic paragraph of that encyclical, admitting the need for a new way of exercising papal primacy open to the new situation, with its invitation to theologians and other church leaders to dialogue on this topic (UUS 89,95-6) recalls the 1988 Lambeth Conference Resolution which encouraged ARCIC II to explore the basis in Scripture and tradition for the concept of a universal primacy, in conjunction with collegiality, as an instrument of unity, and to draw upon the experience of other churches. Similarly the statement One Bread, One Body from Catholic bishops stimulated many Anglicans to think seriously about their own Eucharistic belief, and evoked a formal response from the Church of England House of Bishops, in their document The Eucharist, Sacrament of Unity.
Of course it is not all roses. There are still serious differences between us, not least in the methods by which each church assesses and responds to dialogue results; and progress in other bilateral relations can threaten the depth and strength of this one,[xlii] yet the 1996 Common Declaration by Pope John Paul II and Archbishop George Carey 'affirmed the signs of progress' and despite the obstacles they mentioned, encouraged ARCIC to 'continue and deepen our theological dialogues', urged people 'to make full use of the joint possibilities already available', and to 'repent for the past, pray for the grace of unity, and open themselves to God's transforming power'.[xliii]
Such repentance must surely include conversion of mind, which escapes from the shackles of classical logic and Tridentine definition, and recognizes that God can 'do a new thing' (I Sam.3:11). An ecumenism which is about the exchange of gifts [xliv] will not focus wholly on what the other lacks, and will be ready to recognize that there is more than one way of expressing and exemplifying saving truth. Experience and observation 'on the ground' must be accepted as loci theologici and allowed to function as genuine principles from which true theological development can proceed. The Catholic Church needs to be more confident—and perhaps more honest—about hearing the voice of God outside her own visible boundaries, as was demanded by Vatican II's Decree on Ecumenism. This subject has been treated seriously and carefully by William Henn, O.F.M.Cap., professor at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. He points out that ecumenical dialogue depends largely on a more attentive listening to what has been 'handed down from the beginning'; he continues:
It enables us to remember forgotten aspects of Revelation, and to see in God's revealed word possibilities we were not aware of, or to which we had paid insufficient attention. Such a rediscovery of God's will as contained in Revelation, and a re-evaluation of the origins of our divisions, is taking place. The extent of legitimate diversity is still to be clarified, but unity will be founded on the will of God as made known in Scripture and Tradition.[xlv]
Mark Santer, Anglican Bishop of Birmingham and former co-chairman of ARCIC II, has also emphasized the 1998 Common Declaration's allusion to 'irreversible progress' and 'growth in practical trust and cooperation despite remaining difficulties'. He commented that the Pope's use of the address 'My brothers and sisters of the Anglican Communion' was not merely courtesy or decoration, but 'an effective sign of love and communion – albeit imperfect.' He went on to point out that 'an effective ingredient of communion is mutual trust – the kind of trust that enables people to speak clearly and openly of difficulties, and know that their relationship will not be thereby weakened and destroyed.' He saw, during this 1996 visit of the Archbishop to the Pope a new maturity and realism in the relationship between Rome and Canterbury: 'Beneath the deep and plain disagreements there was a palpable sense of still deeper communion...shared faith in the reality of God's power to transform impossibility into possibility...The Pope and the Archbishop are pastors of christian people who, as citizens of heaven, have recognized one another as brothers and sisters in Christ, and who are committed in faith and hope nourished by love, to search for a common life which they believe to be God's will for his people.'[xlvi]
The same attitude was clearly evident in the words of the Pope himself when he said to the members of IARCCUM at their first meeting last year:
At times of apparent pause we must wait for the Holy Spirit to do what we ourselves cannot do; yet this waiting is not passive. It is a very active experience of christian hope which cries out 'Come, Holy Spirit' but also implies the hard work of dialogue and shared witness...As we look confidently to the success of this new working group, let our common prayer be: 'Come, Lord Jesus, make us one as only you can, so that the world may at last see the Bride of the Lamb coming down out of heaven...shining with the glory of God.'[xlvii]
[i] Pius XI, Mortalium Animos, English edn. (Catholic Truth Society, London, 1928).
[ii] A few daring Catholics, priests and layfolk, did nevertheless attend.
[iii] See Cardinal Bourne's Preface to the English edn. of Mortalium animos.
[iv] Yves Congar, O.P., Divided Christendom, English edn. (London, 1939).
[v] Pius XII, Mystici Corporis Christi, English edn. (Catholic Truth Society, London, 1944).
[vi] See Christopher Hill & Edward Yarnold, Anglicans and Roman Catholics: the Search for Unity (London, 1994), p.10.
[vii] See ARCIC I, The Final Report (London, 1982), p.108.
[viii] Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, Bk.I, ch.1.
[ix] vs. n. 7.
[x] The Common Declaration, Canterbury, 29 May 1982.
[xi] ARCIC II, Salvation and the Church, Anglican Consultative Council and Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [hereafter ACC/PCPCU] (London & Vatican City, 1987).
[xii] ARCIC II, The Church as Communion, ACC/PCPCU (London & Vatican City, 1991).
[xiii] Pope John Paul II & Archbishop Robert Runcie, Common Declaration, 29 May 1982.
[xiv] Cardinal Willebrands, President of PCPCU to ARCIC II Co-chairmen, 13 July 1985, '...the text of the Ordinal might no longer retain that nativa indoles which was at the basis of Pope Leo's judgement...this would open the way for a new consideration of the Ordinal (and subsequent rites of ordination introduced in Anglican Churches) that could lead to a new evaluation of the sufficiency of these rites, as far as concerns future ordinations...' As a consequence of this, English ARC commissioned a detailed study and comparison of the 1662 Ordinal, the Ordinal provided in the 1982 Alternative Service Book and the R.C. Ordinal as amended by Pius XII in 1946, carried out in the light of the ARCIC Agreed Statements on Eucharist and Ministry, by Revv. George Carey, Roger Greenacre, Hugh Wybrew, Edward Yarnold and Mary Cecily Boulding. The difficulty raised by the ordination of women prevented further progress with this project.
[xv] Exchange of letters between Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Robert Runcie, 1984-8.
[xvi] Cf. Resolution 1 of the 1988 Lambeth Conference, '...that each Province respect the decision and attitudes of other Provinces, in the ordination and consecration of women to the episcopate, without such respect necessarily indicating acceptance of the principles involved, maintaining the highest possible degree of communion with Provinces which differ...'
[xvii] vs. n. 6, p.153.
[xvii] vs. n. 6, p.156.
[xix] ARCIC II, Clarifications on Eucharist and Ministry, ACC/PCPCU (London & Vatican City, 1994).
[xx] It was also seen by many as betraying the agreed ARCIC method of 'going back behind the habits of thought and expression...born in enmity and controversy...to scrutinise together...the ancient common tradition...' explicitly endorsed by Pope John Paul II in an address to ARCIC at Castel Gondolfo on 4 September 1980. vs. n. 6.
[xxi] Cf. Cardinal Edward Cassidy, President of PCPCU, to Co-chairmen of ARCIC II, 1994. vs. n. 6, p.206.
[xxii] ARCIC II, Life in Christ, Morals, Communion and the Church, ACC/PCPCU (London & Vatican City, 1994).
[xxiii] ARCIC II, The Gift of Authority – Authority in the Church III, ACC/PCPCU (London & Vatican City, 1999).
[xxiv] ARCIC is preparing a statement on the Blessed Virgin Mary in the life and doctrine of the Church, using Scripture, Patristic thought, Reformation authors and the dogmatic definitions of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and the Assumption (1950). See PCPCU Information Service No. 107, 2002/1-11, and The Tablet, 27 July 2002.
[xxv] Communion in Mission, joint declaration from Mississauga, 19 May 2000; see PCPCU Information Service No. 104, 2000/11.
[xxvi] Bishop Butler retired from English ARC in 1985.
[xxvii] E.g., St Bede's School, Redhill, Surrey (secondary) and The Bishop's School, Chelmsford, Essex (primary), both visited by English ARC. According to a 1995 report of the Association of Ecumenical and Interchurch Schools, there were then 11 joint schools in England and Wales, mainly at secondary level, and 22 in the North of Ireland, mainly at primary level.
[xxviii] E.g., at St Basil's and All Saints LEP, Cheshire, visited by English ARC in 1994.
[xxix] Catholic Bishops' Conferences of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, One Bread, One Body (Catholic Truth Society, London, 1998).
[xxx] House of Bishops of the Church of England, The Eucharist, Sacrament of Unity (Church House Publishing, London, 2001).
[xxxi] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Dominus Jesus, On The Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and The Church (Vatican City, 2000).
[xxxii] E.g., the reception into full communion and priestly ordination in the Catholic Church of some Anglican clergy at the time of the Church of England's decision to ordain women.
[xxxiii] E.g., Twinnings and Exchanges, Guidelines proposed by the Anglican-Roman Catholic Committees of England and France (BMU, London, and Église Anglicane, St George, Paris, 1990); M.C. Boulding & Tim Bradshaw, Salvation and the Church, with Commentary and Study Guide (Catholic Truth Society, London, 1989); Mary Bard, Life in Christ Discussion Pack (English ARC, 1994); Priscilla Chadwick, Schools of Reconciliation: issues in Joint Anglican-Roman Catholic Education (Cassells, 1994); M.C. Boulding, R. Greenacre, J. Muddiman & E.J. Yarnold, 'Apostolicae Curae A Hundred Years On', in One in Christ, 1996/4.
[xxxiv] vs. nn. 14,17,18.
[xxxv] vs. nn. 17,18.
[xxxvi] See Briefing, 12 July 2000, pp.21-2.
[xxxvii] It should of course also be noted that on 31 October 1999 official representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation formally signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification.
[xxxviii] Survey carried out for English Anglican-Roman Catholic Committee by Mrs Mary Bard, June-October 1993.
[xxxix] Pope John Paul II to Cardinal Willebrands, 15 August 1996, at the ARCIC II meeting held in Malines to celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the Malines Conversations. For actual discussion of the issues, see correspondence between Archbishop Runcie and Cardinal Willebrands as President of the PCPCU, 1985-6.
[xl] Pope John Paul II, Ut Unum Sint, English edn. (Catholic Truth Society, London, 1995). According to The Tablet, 29 June 2002, p.27, the President of the PCPCU, Cardinal Walter Kasper, said that an analysis of the views on papal primacy contributed by Orthodox and Protestant christians would be made public in the July issue of the PCPCU Quarterly Bulletin.
[xli] ARCIC I, Final Report, Introduction, para. 9.
[xlii] See Revd Timothy Galligan, 'Thirty Years of Changing Relationships between the Anglican Communion and the Catholic Church' in PCPCU Information, 28 January 1997.
[xliii] See Briefing, 20 February 1997.
[xliv] See Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Robert Runcie, Common Declaration, 2 October 1989.
[xlv] See Revd William Henn, O.F.M.Cap., 'The Vision of Unity Emerging under the Impact of Ecumenical Dialogue' in Report of the Seventh Forum on Bilateral Dialogues, WCC, Geneva, 1997, where he quotes Yves Congar, O.P., 'one of the best-known Catholic ecumenists of this century' as saying that '...knowledge of the past is precisely the key which unlocks unexpected new possibilities for the future', n.2.
[xlvi] See Rt Revd Mark Santer, Anglican Bishop of Birmingham and former co-chairman of ARCIC II, 'The Impossible Takes Longer' in The Tablet, 14 December 1996.
[xlvii] See PCPCU Information, no. 108, 2001/IV, pp.155-6.
Revd William Purdy, The Search for Unity - Relations Between Anglicans and Roman Catholics, 1950s to 1970s (Chapman, London, 1976).
A. Denaux & J. Dick, eds. From Malines to ARCIC - The Malines Conversations Commemorated (Leuven University Press, 1997).